What is centrifugal pump?
, which is also called centrifugal water pump
, is a pump that relies on the centrifugal force generated by the rotation of an impeller to transport liquid. The centrifugal pump works by using the impeller to rotate and cause the water to undergo centrifugal motion.
Structure of centrifugal pump
Impeller is the core component of the centrifugal pump, which can make the water gain kinetic energy to generate flow. The impeller is made up of blades, cover plate and hub. According to the condition of the cover plate, the impeller can be divided into three types: open type, closed type and semi-open type. Centrifugal pumps often adopt a closed impeller single-channel or double-channel structure to prevent debris from clogging; sand pumps often adopt a semi-open and open structure to prevent sand particles from wearing and blocking the impeller.
The water passing part of the pump casing requires good hydraulic conditions. Pump casing is composed of several parts, and its inner cavity forms the impeller working chamber, suction chamber and pressure water chamber. There are mainly two kinds of pump casings: end cover type pump casing and split type pump casing. The end cover type pump casing is divided along the radial plane perpendicular to the pump axis to form the pump body and pump cover, which is mostly used for single stage pump. The pump casing split along the plane passing through the center line of the pump shaft, which is usually used for double-supported volute pumps, such as horizontal-axis single-suction and double-suction pumps.
There is a section of divergent conical pipe at the water outlet of the pump. Generally, there is a screw hole for deflation or water filling on the top of the pump body, so that it can be used for vacuuming or filling water before the pump is started.
Pump shaft is commonly used materials are carbon steel and stainless steel. The key is the connecting piece between the rotating bodies. A flat key is generally used in a centrifugal pump.
Sealing ring is also called the leak reducing ring.
Stuffing box is mainly composed of stuffing, water seal ring, stuffing barrel, packing gland and water seal tube.
Types of centrifugal Pump
Single stage single suction centrifugal pump
Single stage single suction centrifugal pump is reliable in operation, simple in structure, easy to manufacture and process, convenient in maintenance and strong in adaptability, and is a widely used centrifugal pump. One end of the pump is supported by a bearing in the bracket, and the other end with the impeller cantilevered out of the bracket. According to the split positions of the pump body and the pump cover, it can be divided into two structures: the front opening type and the rear opening type. The advantage of the back-opening pump is that during maintenance, the bracket and the impeller can be taken out together as long as the bracket nut is loosened, and it is not necessary to disassemble the pump's inlet and outlet pipelines.
Double-suction centrifugal pump
1. The motor can be at the left end or the right end as required. Double-suction centrifugal pump has a split structure in the pump casing. During maintenance, only the pump cover needs to be lifted out, and the rotor parts can be removed for maintenance without dismantling the pipeline, which is very convenient.
2. Double-suction centrifugal pump can guarantee no leakage for a long time. The impeller sealing ring can be replaced after wear and tear, which reduces the operation and maintenance costs.
3. Since the double-suction impeller has two suction ports, each inlet only needs to bear half of the flow, so the flow rate is relatively low, and the impeller is not easy to cavitate.
4. High efficiency, large flow and high head. However, they are bulky and heavy, and are generally not suitable for mobile operations. It is mostly used in factories, mines, urban water supply and drainage, etc.
Multistage centrifugal pump
The multistage centrifugal pump uses several impellers to work in series, so the head is high. The pump body is a vertically split multi-section structure, consisting of a head section, a tail section and several middle sections, which are connected as a whole with four bolts.
Features of centrifugal pump
Low operating cost
The main flow-passing parts of the centrifugal pump are made of stainless steel stamping.
The motor of the centrifugal pump is made of aluminum alloy die-casting, which has the advantages of light weight, small size, good heat dissipation and beautiful appearance.
No water pollution
The main flow-passing parts of the centrifugal pump are made of stainless steel stamping, and have the characteristics of light weight, cleanliness, and sanitation. They are ideal green, environmental protection, and energy-saving water pumps.
Function of centrifugal pump
Centrifugal pumps are often used in urban and rural water supply systems to transport natural water, tap water, etc., and provide civil, industrial and agricultural water.
Drainage and wastewater treatment
Centrifugal pumps can be used in urban drainage systems, sewage treatment plants, industrial wastewater treatment and other scenarios to transport sewage, waste water and rainwater.
Centrifugal pumps are widely used in the field of agricultural irrigation to transport groundwater, river water, etc., and provide irrigation water for farmland, orchards, etc.
Centrifugal pumps are often used in various industrial production processes, such as petroleum, chemical, steel, paper, mining and other industries, to transport various corrosive, high temperature, high pressure and other special media.
Fire pump system
Centrifugal pumps can be used in fire pumping systems to provide emergency water supply for fire facilities.
Refrigeration and air conditioning system
Centrifugal pumps are used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems to transport coolant, cooling water, etc.
Centrifugal pumps are often used as circulation pumps in heating, air conditioning and industrial processes to transport hot water, coolant, etc., to achieve fluid circulation within the system.
Sea water pump
Centrifugal pumps can be used in seawater pumping systems for transporting seawater, desalinated water, etc.
In summary, centrifugal pumps play an important role in various fields, responsible for conveying different types of media and meeting various application needs.
Technical parameters of centrifugal pump
|Flow Q m/h||95
|Flow Q l/s||26.4
Working principle of centrifugal pump
Centrifugal pumps work by using the centrifugal force generated by the water caused by the rotation of the impeller. Before the centrifugal pump is started, the pump casing and the suction pipe must be filled with water, and then the motor is started, so that the pump shaft drives the impeller and the water to rotate at a high speed. The water in the suction pool is pressed into the pump casing under the action of atmospheric pressure, and the impeller rotates continuously, so that the water in the impeller Continuous inflow and outflow under the action, to achieve the purpose of transporting water.
How does centrifugal pump work?
Start centrifugal pump
1. Check whether the inlet valve of the pump is open (make sure the pump body is filled with liquid), whether the discharge valve and outlet valve are closed.
2. Start the pump
3. Observe whether the pressure of the pressure gauge at the pump outlet is normal, and whether there is vibration and noise in the pump body (that is, check whether the pump has air binding and cavitation).
4. Slowly open the outlet valve of the pump (to prevent the motor current from suddenly increasing and overload tripping).
Stop centrifugal pump
1. Slowly close the outlet valve of the pump (especially in the switching operation, if the outlet valve is closed too quickly, it will easily cause system flow fluctuations and affect production)
2. Stop the pump
3. If maintenance is required, close the inlet valve of the pump, open the discharge valve, and drain the liquid in the pump. (During normal periodical switching operation, the inlet valve remains normally open after the pump is stopped.)
In production, sometimes there will be problems such as power outages and motor failures, which will cause the running equipment to stop suddenly.
Centrifugal pump is driven by a motor. Due to the centrifugal force, the liquid is thrown from the center of the impeller to the outer edge of the impeller and is relatively The pressure at the liquid level of the inlet storage tank (hot well, water tank, storage tank, etc.).
Application of carton centrifugal pump
Centrifugal pump can be widely used in electric power, metallurgy, coal, building materials and other industries to transport slurry containing solid particles. The mud pump and the submerged centrifugal pump are limited by the structure. When working, the motor needs to be placed above the water surface, and the pump must be fixed when it is put into the water.
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