What is anaerobic tank?
is an efficient multi-stage internal circulation anaerobic reactor
. It has the features of less land occupation, high organic load, stronger impact resistance, more stable performance, and simpler operation and management. An anaerobic tank is suitable for organic high-concentration wastewater treatment, such as corn starch wastewater, citric acid wastewater, beer wastewater, potato processing wastewater, and alcohol wastewater.
Working principle of anaerobic tank
After adjusting the pH and temperature of the wastewater into the mixing zone at the bottom of the reactor, and fully mixed with the mud-water mixture from the external circulation reflux into the granular sludge expansion bed area for COD biochemical degradation, where the COD volume load is high, most of the influent COD is degraded here, producing a large amount of marsh. Due to the swelling work done on the liquid during the formation of swamp bubbles produces the lifting effect, which makes the mixture of swamp, sludge, and water rise, and after the degradation in the parking area, the three-phase separator in the mixed liquid reactor section, where the swamp is separated from the mud and water and exported to the treatment system. The sludge-water mixture then descends along the baffle plate to the mixing zone at the bottom of the reactor and enters the sludge expansion bed area again after fully mixing with the influent water, forming the so-called internal circulation. Depending on the influent COD load and the reactor configuration, the return flow rate of the external circulation can be 0.5-10 times the influent flow rate. The wastewater treated by the expanded bed continues to rise except for a part of the wastewater involved in the circulation, and the wastewater enters the packing zone for the remaining COD degradation and methane production process, which improves and ensures effluent quality. Since most of the COD has been degraded, the COD load in the fill zone is lower and the yield is smaller. The methane produced is collected by a three-phase separator and exported to the treatment system through the collector pipeline. After the wastewater treated in the filler zone is acted by the three-phase separator, the supernatant goes through the affluent zone, and the granular sludge is returned to the sludge bed.
Feature of anaerobic tank
High volumetric loading rate
Anaerobic tanks have high biomass due to the presence of strong internal circulation, good mass transfer, and high biomass. Its influent loading rate is much higher than that of an ordinary UASB reactor and generally can be about 3 times higher. When treating high-concentration organic wastewater, the volumetric loading rate can reach 15-30kgCOD/m3 when COD is 10000-15000mg/1.
Shock load resistance
As the anaerobic tank realizes its internal circulation, the circulation volume can be 10-20 times the influent water. Because the circulating water is fully mixed with the influent water at the bottom of the reactor, the concentration of organic matter at the bottom of the reactor is reduced, thus improving the shock load resistance of the reactor; at the same time, the large water volume also allows the sludge at the bottom to expand, ensuring the full contact reaction between the organic matter in the wastewater and microorganisms and improving the treatment load.
Because the anaerobic tank is operated in series with two UASB reactors, the lower one has a high organic loading rate and plays the role of "coarse" treatment, while the upper one has low loading and plays the role of "fine" treatment, which makes the effluent quality good and stable.
Advantage of anaerobic tank
a. The structure of the anaerobic reactor is simple and ingenious. The sedimentation area is located at the top of the reactor, and the wastewater enters from the bottom of the reactor and comes into contact with a large number of anaerobic bacteria through the sludge bed. The organic matter in the wastewater is decomposed by the anaerobic bacteria into biogas (the main components are CH4 and CO2), and the wastewater mixes with the biogas and anaerobic bacteria solids during the ascent. The solid-liquid separation is in the gas chamber area, the treated purified water is discharged from the top of the reactor and the wastewater treatment is completed. Most of the sludge from the settling area can be returned to the sludge bed in the reactor and maintain sufficient biomass. So the whole first half consists of biological reaction and sedimentation, and the reactor does not need mechanical stirring, no feeding, simple structure, and easy operation and management.
b. Anaerobic granular sludge can be cultured in a reactor. In the treatment of most organic wastewater, anaerobic granular sludge can generally be cultured in the reactor as long as it is operated correctly. Anaerobic granular sludge has the characteristics of high activity, high density, good sedimentation performance, and high reactor biomass.
c. High adaptability to various wastewaters. The reactor can produce not only high-concentration organic wastewater such as alcohol, molasses, and citric acid but also medium-concentration organic wastewater such as beer, slaughter, and soft drinks, as well as low-concentration wastewater such as domestic sewage and municipal sewage. The working temperature is about 20℃, and it can work at 55℃ and 35℃. The reactor can adapt to various organic wastewater discharged from various industries in addition to organic wastewater containing toxic and harmful substances.
Application of anaerobic tank
Anaerobic septic system
Anaerobic septic system is a small treatment system that separates and settles domestic sewage and anaerobically digests sludge. The principle is that the solidified material decomposes at the bottom of the tank, and the upper layer of hydrated material flows away into the pipeline, preventing clogging of the pipeline and giving sufficient time for hydrolysis of the solidified material (feces and other waste).
As we all know, the main component causing water pollution is organic matter. Organic matter is biomass energy, which is a valuable asset for human beings to use. It is the goal of future environmental protection work to develop the biomass energy of organic pollutants economically and effectively and to achieve the purpose of cleaning the environment while recycling tiomass energy. Biochemical treatment is a technology system based on the principle of microbial digestion and decomposition of organic pollutants to obtain carbon and energy from them. Due to the different processes, conditions, and microorganisms involved in biochemical reactions, biochemical treatment can be simply divided into two categories: aerobic and anaerobic degradation and the basic processes of the two types of biochemical reactions are as follows. Aerobic degradation: organic matter + oxygen + aerobic microorganisms - enzyme one, water + carbon dioxide + inorganic nutrients + energy; anaerobic degradation: organic matter + anaerobic and parthenogenic microorganisms? Enzyme I, organic products of anaerobic digestion + inorganic nutrients + energy.
Aerobic digesters are aeration tanks used to treat waste, primary sludge, or mixtures thereof. They are often placed in small units with deep aeration or contact stability treatment. Aerobic digestion is more expensive than sub-aerobic sludge digestion and is not gas-fired. The treated sludge is odorless, stable, easy to dewater, has fewer operational problems, and requires a shorter retention time.
An anaerobic sludge digester is the place where anaerobic sludge digestion takes place.
Anaerobic sludge digestion is the process of sludge stabilization by the decomposition of biodegradable organic matter in sludge into carbon dioxide, methane, and water by parthenogenic anaerobic bacteria and specialized anaerobic bacteria under anaerobic conditions, and is one of the common means of sludge reduction and stabilization. That is, it is one of the methods to stabilize the generated sludge in wastewater treatment plants.
Working principle of anaerobic digester tank
The anaerobic sludge digestion tank is the place where anaerobic sludge digestion is carried out. Anaerobic sludge digestion refers to the decomposition of biodegradable organic matter in sludge into carbon dioxide, methane, and water by parthenogenic anaerobic bacteria and specific anaerobic bacteria under anaerobic conditions, and its function is to reduce the content of organic matter in sludge or make it temporarily not produce decomposition and pollute the environment.
The anaerobic activated sludge method for treating high-concentration organic wastewater mainly uses some parthenogenic anaerobic bacteria and transient anaerobic bacteria to carry out methane fermentation under anoxic or anaerobic conditions to degrade organic matter into inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide and methane. Among them, there are four main stages of methane fermentation: hydrolysis stage, fermentation stage (acidification stage), acetic acid production stage, and methane production stage.
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