What is glass lined reactor?
is an apparatus containing high silica glass
, lined on the inner surface of a steel vessel, which is firmly and densely packed on the metal surface after high-temperature firing. It is commonly used in petrochemical, rubber, pesticide, dye, pharmaceutical, and other industries to complete the process of sulfonation, nitration, hydrogenation, hydro-carbonation, polymerization, condensation, and many other processes of organic dyes and intermediate reaction equipment.
Structure of glass-lined reactor
The reaction tank structure consists of a kettle body, cover, jacket, stirrer, transmission device, shaft sealing device, support, etc. The reactor wall is set outside the jacket, or the heat exchange surface is set inside the vessel, or heat exchange can be done through external circulation (such as the reactor steam condenser); the support seat of the reactor has support or ear support, etc. It is appropriate to use a gear reducer for a speed over 160 rpm, and the structure diagram is as follows.
a. The reaction tank main body and reaction tank cover is made of stainless steel, the tank body is connected with a flange through the thread, the cover is a positive flat plate cover, and both are closely connected through the main bolts and nuts evenly distributed in the circumferential direction.
b. The main sealing port of the reaction tank adopts A-type double line seal, and other sealing points adopt the form of circular arc surface seal, plane line contact, circular arc surface, and circular arc surface, relying on the high precision and smoothness of the contact surface to achieve a good sealing effect.
c. Reaction tank heating (or cooling) device can improve the heat transfer conditions, so that the reaction temperature control more uniform, and does not strengthen the mass transfer process.
d. The outside of the tank is equipped with a barrel-shaped silicon carbide core with electric furnace wire penetrating the core and the end of the furnace body passing through the lower part of the shell. The rubber casing cable is connected to the controller through the connecting stud.
e. The function of the glass-lined reactor stirrer is to make the contact between two or more substances in the glass-lined reaction equipment as much as possible and to form a sufficient mixture within the predetermined processing time to help heat transfer, mass transfer, and chemical reaction so that the products reach the required yield.
f. The lid is equipped with a pressure gauge, safety device vapor-liquid phase valve temperature sensor, etc. It is convenient to know the reaction in the kettle at any time and adjust the ratio of the medium in the kettle to ensure safe operation.
g. The coupling mainly consists of a pair of magnetically strong inner and outer magnetic rings with a pressure-bearing spacer in the middle; the stirrer is driven by a servo motor through the coupling.
h. The upper part of the spacer is equipped with a speed-measuring coil. When the integrated stirrer rotates together with the inner magnetic ring, the speed-measuring coil generates an induced electric potential; the potential corresponds to the stirring speed and the potential is transmitted to the tachometer to indicate the stirring speed.
i. The cooling water jacket is installed between the magnetic coupling and the tank cover, when the working temperature is high, it should pass through the cooling water, and the temperature of the magnet is too high to demagnetize.
The glass-lined reaction tank has the double advantages of stability of glass-lined and mental strength and can improve the heat transfer conditions, make the reaction temperature control more uniform, and strengthen the function of the mass transfer process.
Working principle of glass-lined reactor
Due to the wide variety of raw materials in chemical reactions, the reaction process is very complex, not only a pure chemical reaction process but also a physical mass transfer process, such as fluid flow, material heat transfer, mass transfer, mixing, etc. The reaction principle’s diagram of the glass-lined reaction tank is as follows.
The temperature control system of the reactor is surrounded by a jacket, a steam-regulating valve connected to the steam-activated equipment, and a cooling water regulating valve connected to the cooling water is set.
The temperature measuring equipment measures the real-time temperature in the reactor and jacket, and the temperature control equipment selects the temperature control method to control the temperature in the jacket and then ends up controlling the temperature in the glass-lined reactor.
When the temperature measured by the temperature measuring equipment is lower than the set value, open the steam regulating valve to increase the water temperature inside the jacket and raise the temperature of the materials in the reactor; when the temperature measured by the temperature measuring equipment is higher than the set value, open the cooling water regulating valve to cool the water temperature inside the jacket and lower the temperature of the materials in the reactor, and then stabilize the temperature inside the reactor within a certain temperature plan so that the reaction can be carried out smoothly.
Types of glass lined reactor
Types of GLR reactor
Reactors can be divided into the tank (or kettle), tube, tower, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors according to the characteristics of the structure type.
Glass-lined tank reactor
Glass-lined tank reactor is mainly used for liquid-phase homogeneous, liquid-phase non-homogeneous, or gas-liquid phase reactions. It can be operated intermittently or continuously. The reactor is composed of a shell, stirrer, and Ban heat method. The role of the stirrer is to make the material evenly mixed, strengthen the heat and mass transfer, and heat exchange device to maintain the appropriate temperature required for the reaction, can be jacketed, snake tube, or column tube type, and can also be an external heat cycle type.
Glass-lined tubular reactor
Glass-lined tubular reactor is applied to a continuous reaction of gas or liquid phase. As the tubes can usually withstand high pressure, they are particularly suitable for reactions under pressure, such as the hydrogenation of oils and fats to produce high-carbon alcohols, which mostly use tube reactors. Tubular furnaces for cracking reactions are also tubular reactors.
Use of glass-lined reactor
Operating pressure of glass-lined equipment
Reactor vessels operate at high pressure. The pressure inside the kettle is generated by a chemical reaction or formed by temperature rise, the pressure fluctuates greatly, sometimes the operation is unstable, and the sudden pressure rise may exceed several times the normal pressure, therefore, most of the reactors belong to pressurized vessels.
Operating temperature of the glass-lined vessel
Reactors operate at high temperatures. Usually, chemical reactions need to be carried out under certain temperature conditions, so the reactor is subject to both pressure and temperature. The methods to obtain high temperatures are usually the following.
Water heating can be used when the required temperature is not high, and there are two kinds of heating systems: open type and closed type. The open type is simple, it consists of a circulation pump, water tank, pipeline, and regulator to control the valve. When high-pressure water is used, the mechanical strength of the equipment is required to be high, and the outer surface of the reactor is welded with snake pipe, which has a gap with the wall of the kettle so that the thermal resistance increases and the heat transfer effect decreases.
When the heating temperature is below 100℃, the steam below one-atmosphere pressure can be used to heat; in the range of 100~180℃, saturated steam is used; when the temperature is higher, high-pressure superheated steam can be used.
Other media heating
If the process requirements must be operated at high temperatures or to avoid the use of a high-pressure heating system, available other media to replace water and steam.
The resistance wire is wound on the insulating layer of the reactor barrel, or installed on an ad hoc insulator at several distances from the reactor, thus forming a small space gap between the resistance wire and the reactor body.
Operation of glass lined reactor
Glass lined reactor equipment has a certain resistance to rapid temperature change, however, glass lined equipment has limited resistance to rapid temperature change, so the use of glass lined reactor process is strictly prohibited temperature sudden cold, and sudden heat, so as not to damage the glass lined surface.
Glass lined reactor using temperature is divided into two cases: thermal shock ≤ 100 ℃, and cold shock ≤ 90 ℃, which requires glass lined reactor in the steam into the heating, the water in the jacket to be released first, open the steam or cooling water inlet valve, not a one-time full open, to be pre-passed to the jacket pressure in about 0.1MPa, keep a quarter of an hour, and then slowly open the inlet valve in stages, to prevent hot and cold shock damage Equipment, heating (or cooling) speed should be maintained at about 3 ℃ / min, should not exceed 5 ℃ / min; at the same time, the operation of the kettle shell to avoid contact with acid, alkali and other corrosive liquids, once there is material contact should be promptly scrubbed with a rag in clean, to prohibit water rinsing equipment to avoid damage to the insulation layer.
Operation process also often observes whether the thermometer casing and material contact: due to the thermal resistance of the glass-lined tube, the general temperature display in the tank and the actual temperature has a - a certain degree of lag warming, the cooling operation should take into account the impact of thermal inertia and display lag factors.
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