What is refrigerating machine?
, which is also called refrigerator
or ice water machine
, is a machine that transfers heat from a cold object with a lower temperature to an ambient medium to obtain a colled quantity. The heat transferred from the lower temperature object is customarily called the cooling capacity. Refrigerating machine is widely used in industrial and agricultural production and in everyday life.
Ice water machine
The refrigeration principle of ice water machine is to use the cooling water of the safety display cabinet to flow in from the top of the main condenser, and the mixed steam is condensed after being sprayed by the cooling water, and is discharged into the pool from the lower part together with the cooling water. The uncondensed steam and air accumulated in the main condenser are extracted by the first auxiliary ejector, condensed by the first auxiliary cooler, and then directly discharged after being sucked and condensed by the second auxiliary ejector and the second auxiliary condenser. into the atmosphere.
History of refrigerating machine
In 1834, the British Jacobi Perkins piloted the successful human rotation of the refrigerating machine with ether as the work substance can work continuously. 1844, the United States J. Gorey piloted the refrigerator with air as the work substance, used in hospitals to make ice and cooling air. 1872 ~ 1874, D. Bell and C. von Lind invented ammonia compressor in the United States and Germany, respectively, and made the ammonia vapor compressed refrigerator, which is the beginning of modern compression refrigeration. In the 1850s, the Carre brothers in France successfully developed the absorption refrigerator and ammonia absorption refrigerator with sulfuric acid and water as the working medium. 1910 saw the emergence of steam injection refrigerator. 1930 saw the emergence of Freon refrigerant, which encouraged the quick development of compression refrigerator. 1945, America successfully developed the silver bromide absorption refrigerating machine.
Structure of refrigerating machine
The picture number corresponds to the product name:
2 High pressure controller
4. Dry filter
5. Expansion valve
6. Antifreeze switch
8. Low pressure controller
9. Water pump
10. Water tank
11. Float switch
12. Ball valve
Types of refrigerating machine
Refrigerating machine can be divided into: compression refrigeration machine, absorption refrigeration machine, steam injection refrigeration machines, semiconductor refrigeration. Among them, vapor compression refrigeration machine (piston, rotary, screw, centrifugal), absorption refrigeration machine and steam injection refrigeration machine is more widely used. In addition to a few large cold capacity and special purpose refrigeration machine, general purpose piston, centrifugal, screw, scroll, lithium bromide absorption, steam injection chillers, as well as refrigeration, refrigeration, low-temperature test equipment can be manufactured.
The main features of various types of refrigerators are as follows:
Compression refrigeration machine
Simple structure, less wear parts, long service life, high single-stage compression ratio, in the range of medium and large refrigeration capacity has replaced the trend of piston type.
The technology is more mature, high efficiency, the use of a wide range of temperatures, can be made into small, medium and large products of various sizes, is the most widely used in a variety of refrigerators.
The use of high-speed rotation of the impeller so that the refrigerant gas to obtain kinetic energy, and then through the diffuser to increase its pressure and cooling liquefaction, throttling and refrigeration. With the features of large cooling capacity of single machine, compact structure and can be adjusted for energy. Most of the machines used for air conditioning use R12 and R11 refrigerants.
Absorption refrigeration machine
The use of absorbent adsorption of refrigerant evaporation and refrigeration. Commonly used are ammonia - water absorption refrigerator and lithium bromide - water absorption refrigerator, with heat source as the power, consume less electricity, smooth operation, less wearing parts, energy regulation range is large, is a newly developed variety of refrigeration machine.
Working principle of refrigerating machine
Compression type refrigerator
Relying on the function of the compressor to increase the pressure of refrigerating machine to make the refrigeration cycle come true, according to the type of refrigerating machine can also be divided into gas compression type refrigerating machine (based on high-pressure gas expansion refrigeration, the refrigerant is always in the gas state) and vapor compression type refrigerating machine (based on hydraulic evaporative refrigeration, refrigerant to occur in the periodic gas-liquid phase change), modern refrigeration machine to vapor compression type refrigerator is most widely used.
Absorption type refrigerator
Relying on the function of the absorber - generator group (thermochemical compressor) to accomplish the refrigeration cycle, and can be divided into lithium bromide absorption, ammonia absorption and absorption diffusion type 3.
Steam injection type refrigerator
Relying on the function of steam injector (jet compressor) to accomplish the refrigeration cycle.
The use of semiconductor heat - electric effect of the production of cold.
The main performance indicators of the refrigerator are the operating temperature (evaporating temperature and condensing temperature for vapor compression refrigerators, gas compression refrigerators and semiconductor refrigerators for the temperature of the cooled object and the temperature of the cooling medium), refrigeration capacity (the heat removed from the cooled object per unit time of the refrigerator), power or heat consumption, refrigeration coefficient (a measure of the economy of the compression refrigerator, refers to the consumption of unit work can (the amount of cold obtained) and the thermal coefficient (a measure of the economy of absorption and steam injection refrigerators, referring to the amount of cold that can be obtained by consuming a unit of heat), etc.
How to save energy of refrigerating machine?
1. Refrigerating machine energy-saving principle: increase the evaporation temperature and reduce the condensing temperature. In the premise of meeting the safety and production needs of the equipment, try to improve the evaporation temperature and reduce the condensing temperature.
2. Prevent and reduce pipe scaling to improve the heat transfer efficiency of the condenser and evaporator supplemental water if the water treatment is not done well, calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate produced by heat will be deposited on the pipe. So that the thermal conductivity decreases, affecting the heat transfer efficiency of the condenser and evaporator, and make the equipment running electricity costs rise significantly. At this time, in addition to the use of water treatment technology, but also the use of regular automatic cleaning equipment for pipeline cleaning.
3. Adjust the refrigeration machine equipment reasonable operating load
In the case of ensuring the safe operation of the equipment, refrigeration mainframe running at 70%-80% load than when running at 100% load, the power consumption per unit of cold capacity is smaller. The use of this way to start to combine the operation of the pump, cooling tower to consider.
4. The use of refrigeration machine frequency conversion device, adjust the speed of the centrifugal refrigeration machine compressor low-pressure refrigerant through the centrifuge, the pressure rises. In actual operation, the equipment is mostly operating at non-full load. Fixed speed centrifuges cause energy waste when the equipment is running at low loads. The inverter centrifugal chillers can automatically adjust the compressor speed according to the change of load, and there is more room for energy saving.
Daily maintenance of refrigerating machine
1. When the oil level is lower than 1/4 of the sight glass, the lubricant should be replenished in time.
2. When the suction pressure is lower than the atmospheric pressure, open the refueling valve, the oil will automatically enter the compressor.
3. When the oil level exceeds 5/6 of the sight glass, the refueling operation should be stopped: first close the refueling valve, then open the system liquid supply valve to restore normal.
1. When the system is judged to be short of liquid, fluoride should be added to the system in time.
2. The R23 system should put the bottle mouth upward, while the R404A system should put the bottle mouth downward to ensure rapid fluoridation.
3. When fluoridation is finished, close the valve of fluorine bottle first, and then close the valve of fluorine filling port.
4. The refrigerant should not be added too much at one time to avoid high exhaust pressure. If it is not enough
at one time, it can be repeated.
5. The basis for judging the normal system level is that the pressure value of R23 system is between 6~8bar after parking equal pressure, and the liquid level of condenser in R404A system is at 1/5~2/5 of the sight glass during operation.
1. When the system pressure is significantly higher than the saturation pressure at the corresponding temperature, air release should be considered.
2. Since the air is concentrated only in the high-pressure part, it should be operated through the condenser's air release valve.
3. High-temperature systems should be carried out at the time of parking, low-temperature systems are best in operation.
4. The air operation should be carried out in several times, and not too much air should be released at one time to avoid releasing too much refrigerant.
Technical parameters of refrigerating machine
|Inlet liquid size||DN-25||DN-32||DN-40||DN-40||DN-50
|outlet liquid size||PN-10||PN-10||PN-10||PN-10||PN-10
|Cooling water 30 degrees||8m³/h||10m³/h||16m³/h||20m³/h||25m³/h
|Expansion tank (standard configuration)||50L||80L||150L||180L||200L
Operation process of refrigerating machine
Tools and equipment
Sandblasting equipment, cork, alcohol or acetone, canvas or plastic cloth for protection, garbage bag, scraper, auger, working power, hand drill, rubber gloves, protective glasses, helmet, wiping cloth, brush.
Open the end cover of the condenser of the refrigerator
Blow dry the water on the surface and inside of the tube with a hair dryer and blower, then use a cork to plug the mouth of the tube and cover the flap to ensure that the mouth of the tube is not damaged when sandblasting.
Use canvas and other etc. to cover up when sandblasting treatment, so as not to spray out the sand particles dirty other equipment. Sandblasting with quartz sand or diamond sand, it can produce 4 mils of surface without generating more dust, to always hit the base material metal color. Remove the cork when sandblasting is complete.
Use acetone to clean the impurities and oil from the metal surface.
Apply the material
First fill the parts of the inner wall of the condenser tube plate that have pits with Megawatt polymer repair material metal repair material, so as not to produce eddy currents in the water when working, until it reaches the required plane shall prevail. Then apply the polymer fluid protection material evenly to the entire repaired surface. Pay special attention to the joints between the panel and the pipe to achieve the purpose of sealing and plugging leaks.
Curing is carried out according to the curing requirements of the material, and can be put into production operation after curing is completed.
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